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What projective tests are available for a child and family assessment?

What projective tests are available for a child and family assessment?



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I'm thinking about introducing to my practice some new tests for family relationship evaluation. There are not so many projective tests in this matter. I'm particularly interested in Family Relation Test: Children's Version (FRTC), however, I couldn't found any information about a real experience of this test usage by specialists, only its general description on the website of a publisher. What are the strengths and the weaknesses of FRTC?

In general, what projective tests for a child and family assessment are there on the market today, except of classic drawing tests or TAT?


Many projective tests explore family relationships, however it is frankly difficult to find projective tests exclusively focused on family relationships, can be proved:

  • The Family Drawing Test (the most utilized).
  • CAT (version of TAT for children) very, but very used.
  • Test by Patte Noire of Louis Corman.
  • FTT Riding theory test of Carina Coulacoglou.
  • Test of Luisa Düss.
  • TRO of Phillipson (officially focused on a person's ability to establish satisfying relationships with others, emotions in relationships)

The Kinetic Family Drawing Test in Beyond Art Therapy

I first learned about the Kinetic Family Drawing Technique from a school psychologist who uses this valuable art therapy tool in educational testing.

Later, I applied the Kinetic Family Drawing to the doll house in play therapy and then to Shelter House Therapy and with the Beyond Art Therapy Technique (See Link Below).

The Kinetic Family Drawing Test was developed by Burns & Kaufman. You can use a modified version of this test with your clients and students. It is a very helpful technique for a certified, or licensed, professional to keep in their counseling tool box.

The good news is that you do not have to be an art therapist to use this. You do need to be a professional mental health provider, preferably licensed, with some basic art therapy training. You can get some Beyond Art Therapy training in the eBook in the right hand column of this page.

Basically, the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing Technique will help you reveal answers of the following:

- The therapist will see how the client sees themselves in the family unit.

-  Interaction between the child and family members can be measured.

- The “nuclear self” in the client.

- If the client is an adult, the therapist can see the sense of self from childhood.

- The therapist can see the hidden rules in the family that are not easily seen from the outside looking in.

- Internalized feelings from the child and other family members.

- Who is the most important person in the family, to the least important in the family?

- Who is close in the family and who is not close in the family?

There are five basic elements to the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing that need to be analyzed and interpreted. Below you will find the five basic elements:

1. Placement within The Kinetic Family Drawing:

The Kinetic Family Drawing Placement Grid basically analysis where family members are placed in the drawing. Who is standing next to whom? Are they closely drawn, or far away? Who was drawn first, middle, last, and who was omitted in the drawing? Who was added, yet erased, or moved in the drawing? Who is the largest in the drawing and who is the smallest? Is this true to the scale in real life of each person represented?

2. Physical Characteristics

Look at the physical characteristics of each person in the Kinetic Family Drawing. Are body parts exaggerated or omitted? Look at the clothes? Facial features? Colors used?

Basically in this part of the Kinetic Family Drawing the therapist will analyze what each family member is doing and with whom. Who is left out here? Who is included in the action? Who is the leader and who is the follower?

Look for these in the Kinetic Family drawing. They can also be a projection for something going on that is hidden.

5. The Style of the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing (The Family System as a whole.)

This is where you can see the internalized feelings of the child, which are learned and adopted from the parent.  If the child has a positive self-image then they learned it from the internalized feelings of the parent. If negative feelings are present, then you can see it was also learned from the parent.

Look for the obvious, what jumps out at you. Extended arms can mean possible rejection. Also, spikey fingers and dark lines could suggest anger. What is missing from the drawing? Sometimes what is not added to the drawing says more than what is in the drawing.

You will find that the family unit has a major impact on the child’s emotional growth, socialization, and interpersonal relationship skills in the style of the drawing. Basically, this is the child’s, or adults, sense of self learned in childhood.

One aspect that is missing from the five basic elements above is the multicultural aspect of the drawing. For instance, in my region of Appalachia families teach their children to hunt with guns.

If a child drew the entire family out hunting with guns I would find this to be a regional dynamic and concept of the families’ life. As a vegetarian and animal lover this is hard for me to accept.

But, I have to move past my cultural perspective and realize that this is how some of my families feed themselves.

However, if you live in New York City this might be a red flag if you see a drawing of a family with guns. Always know the client, or student’s, background and take the culture in which they live in perspective.

Remember, art therapy is a “sample” and a “rough indicator” of the phenomenological world of the client, or student. Several drawings of different art therapy activities should be used.

I encourage therapist to think of art therapy as a tool and a piece of the puzzle from the client’s mind. It is similar to sand tray therapy.  

A therapist would not base a diagnosis, or assumption, on only one client’s sand tray. They would rely on several sand trays, other therapy tools, and several sessions with the client to see the entire perspective of the client.

Materials for the Kinetic Drawing Test Art Therapy Technique:

 - Eight or more different colored crayons, pencils, or markers      - Erasers

Directions for the Kinetic Drawing Test Technique:

1.  Go over the rules of the drawing: Do the best you can, erase as much as you want, don’t draw stick people or cartoons, take as long as you need to for the drawing, and this is not a test of drawing ability.

2. Turn the paper in the landscape (horizontal orientation). Ask the client to, “Draw everyone who is in your family, including yourself, doing something.” Emphasize that everyone in the drawing need to be doing something. I usually get asked if pets can be drawn. I tell the client this it’s okay if they want to draw a pet as long as they are doing something as well.

3. Once the drawing is complete ask the client if you can keep it until the next session. Interpret the test with the five basic elements of the Kinetic Drawing Test above.

*Important Disclaimer regarding Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing Test:

Exercise caution when using this test! This test should only be conducted by licensed, or certified mental health professionals.

Use this as a piece of the puzzle when trying to help your students, or clients. Remember that in some forensic situations it is considered unethical or illegal to use the Kinetic Drawing Test.

In the school setting it is advisable to obtain consent from parents when utilizing this test. I would also advise consent for all projective tests to be added to the initial paperwork in private practice.

Always allow your client, or student, to translate what is going on in the drawing. Ask questions about each person and what they are doing.

Drawing Translation Above:

The above drawing is one that a 50 year old woman did when her brother who is now an adult was committed to a mental institution.

It shows how her parents still want to protect him and blame others for his behavior. She feels left out and is walking away as the parents try to stop his childish behavior by overprotecting him.

Note that the "brother" is still drawn as a young child even though he is now an adult. He is wearing orange (hyperactivity, prison color, out of control coloring).

Everyone else is wearing blue due to the sadness of the situation. The mother wears a pink shirt for hope. The "daughter" walking away wears green because she knows he is very ill and her family is not accepting his diagnosis.   

Disclaimer: This website and its content is intended for trained licensed mental health professionals and school certified mental health professionals to use for their clients / students at their own discretion.

*If you ignore the disclaimer above are using these techniques on yourself and you feel any discomfort or upset it is highly suggested that you seek out a licensed  mental health professional immediately.

"Beyond Art Therapy" is the concept from Dr. Stangline that combines all creative fields in therapy. It is not the traditional "art therapy" but goes beyond to include sand tray therapy, play therapy, mindfulness, meditation, color therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and a vast majority of other therapies.

For any other type of mental health emergency call your local 911 / Police Number immediately.

Dr. Stangline does not offer advice / suggestions to anyone who is not a professional mental health provider, or a student who is studying this field and has questions about mental health programs of study.


Theory About Projective Tests:

The projective tests are done under the assumption that humans have conscious and unconscious motivation and attitudes.

1. It maintains conscious and unconscious constraints:

The test affirms that an individual has various needs which can be both conscious and unconscious. These needs can be understood using the projective tests.

It is very common to think that these projective tests can be more on the sides of personality. And that is why it mainly handles all the factors of a natural human behavior on conscious and unconscious elements.

2. It results in spontaneous outcomes:

The need of the person comes out spontaneously and there is no editing in these needs. It is the actual picture of the thought process of a person. And that is why these projective tests represent the most spontaneous outcomes of human behavior.

Moreover, it clearly pictures all the needs and wants of the person in the middle of some sort of emotional roller coaster rides.

3. It depends upon non-verbal communication:

The test does not depend on the verbal details of the person who is getting tested. The results are confirmed on the basis of what the person tells spontaneously while conducting the tests.

In simpler words, one can definitely understand actual personal behavior. Therefore, it is one of the most non-verbal communications wherein which people present their nonverbal communication and that might depend upon behavior, reaction and attitude.

4. Motivational barriers:

This study understands all the results of personality reactions. And most importantly, all the motivations, beliefs and attitudes are detectable quickly. And that is why bringing motivational barriers can increase the stake of this projective test hypothesis high.


How do therapists use the family drawing test?

Therapists and psychologists use the family drawing test in the following way:

  • First, they offer the child a piece of paper and colored pencils.
  • The environment should be comfortable. The child should feel safe and secure.
  • Next, they tell the child or adolescent to draw their family.
  • They tell the child that the drawing will not be graded. The idea is for them to be relaxed while drawing. If they enjoy the experience, even better.
  • Later, once figures begin to take shape, the therapist can start to ask questions.
  • One way to get more information during the test is to ask the following questions:Who is this? What do they do? Do you get along with him/her? Who is the happiest? Who is the most unhappy?

It is also important that the psychologist note the order in which the child creates different elements of their drawing. Additionally, they should also indicate if the child erases anything, crosses something out, hesitates, etc.


History of Projective Testing

Typically used with children, the subject is asked to draw a picture of a man, a woman, and themselves. No further instructions are given and the pictures are analyzed on a number of dimensions. Aspects such as the size of the head, placement of the arms, and even things such as if teeth were drawn or not are thought to reveal a range of personality traits (Murstein, 1965). The personality traits can be anything from aggressiveness, to homosexual tendencies, to relationships with their parents, to introversion and extroversion (Machover, 1949). There are many versions of the test, but the one discussed in detail here is the version by Karen Machover in 1949.

The official beginning of when figure drawing was first thought to be associated with personality is unknown. Whether it was the drawing on a cave wall, a painting by a great artist, or a doodle made by an average person, the curiosity somehow came about. However, the formal beginning of it’s use for psychological assessment is known to begin with Florence Goodenough, a child psychologist, in 1926 (Scott, 1981).

Goodenough first became interested in figure drawing when she wanted to find a way to supplement the Stanford-Binet intelligence test with a nonverbal measure. The test was developed to assess maturity in young people. She concluded that the amount of detail involved in a child’s drawing could be used as an effective tool. This led to the development of the first official assessment using figure drawing with her development of the Draw-A-Man test. Over the years, the test has been revised many times with added measures for assessing intelligence (Weiner & Greene, 2008). Harris later revised the test including drawings of a woman and of themselves. Now considered the Goodenough-Harris Test it has guidelines for assessing children from ages 6 to 17 (Scott, 1981).

Soon after the development of the test, psychologists started considering the test for measures of differences in personality as well as intelligence. In 1949, Karen Machover developed the first measure of figure drawing as a personality assessment with the Draw A Person Test (Machover, 1949).

Machover did a lot of work with disturbed adolescents and adults and used the test to assess people of all ages. She wrote a book on her measure expressing that the features of the figures drawn reflect underlying attitudes, concerns, and personality traits. In her test, she included a suggestion to ask about the person they have drawn. She advises to ask them to tell the administrator a story about the figure as if they were in a novel or play. Machover used a qualitative approach in her interpretation considering individual drawing characteristics (Machover, 1949). Others have since suggested a more quantitative approach that can be more widely used analyzing selected characteristics that are in an index of deeper meanings (Murstein, 1965).

The most popular quantitative approach was developed by Elizabeth Koppitz. Koppitz developed a measure of assessment that has a list of emotional indicators including size of figures, omission of body parts, and some “special features”. The total number of the indicators is simply added up to provide a number that represents the likeliness of disturbance (Murstein, 1965).

With the Draw a Person test as a base, a number of other tests have developed using figure drawing as a personality assessment tool. For example, the House-Tree-Person test similarly just asks the person to draw those three objects and then inquires about what they have drawn. The questions asked for inquiry include what kinds of activities go on in the house, what are the strongest parts of the tree, and what things make the person angry or sad. The KFD (Kinetic Family Drawing) tells the drawer to draw their family doing something (Murstein, 1965).

All of these tests have the important element of not only the assessment of the pictures themselves, but also the thematic variables involved. Every figure drawing test asks the drawer to include some kind of description or interpretation of what is happening in the picture. These elements are also analyzed accordingly (Weiner & Greene, 2008).

Advantages:
-Easy to administer (only about 20-30 minutes plus 10 minutes of inquiry)
-Helps people who have anxieties taking tests (no strict format)
-Can assess people with communication problems
-Relatively culture free
-Allow for self administration

Disadvantages:
-Restricted amount of hypotheses can be developed
-Relatively non-verbal, but may have some problems during inquiry
-Little research backing

The Ipad/Ipod Touch has a free app that uses this type of test. Dr.Touch is an app closely resembling the House-Tree-Person Test which is similar to the draw a person test. You draw whatever it asks on the screen and then it gives you a personality assesment according to your drawing. Here’s an example of someone using it:

Machover, K. (1949). Personality projection: in the drawing of a human figure. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.

Murstein, B. (1965). Handbook of projective techniques. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc.

Scott, L. (1981). Measuring intelligence with the goodenough-harris drawing test. Psychological bulletin, 89(3), 483-505.

Weiner, I, & Greene, R. (2008). Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.


What are psychological tests and what are they used for?

When you consult an ophthalmologist for an issue with your vision, they will conduct a series of tests on you—they will make you do an exam or check your eyes for signs of an infection. The results of these tests will help them arrive at a diagnosis and put you on the correct treatment plan: spectacles or just eye drops.

Similarly, psychologists and psychiatrists conduct tests to understand an individual’s functioning and behavior to arrive at a diagnosis of a mental health issue and the corresponding treatment.

What is a psychological assessment?

Psychological assessment is a series of tests conducted by a psychologist, to gather information about how people think, feel, behave and react. The findings are used to develop a report of the person’s abilities and behavior—known as a psychological report—which is then used as a basis to make recommendations for the individual’s treatment.

Psychological assessments and reports are used in other fields as well—like in the case of career planning for young adults or in the job application process to determine how well an applicant will fit into the open role.

The procedures used to create an assessment are:

Consultation with other mental health professionals

Formal psychological tests

Psychological assessment is also used in other fields, like:

Education—to assess a student’s ability to learn, and progress in the classroom

Legal system—to assess the mental health status of a person

What is a psychological test?

A psychological test is used to measure an individual’s different abilities, such as their aptitude in a particular field, cognitive functions like memory and spatial recognition, or even traits like introvertedness. These tests are based on scientifically tested psychological theories.

The format of a test can vary from pencil and paper tasks to computer-based ones. They include activities such as puzzle-solving, drawing, logic problem solving, and memory games.

Some tests also use techniques—known as projective techniques—which aim to access the unconscious. In these instances, the subject’s responses are analyzed through psychological interpretation and more complex algorithms than the non-projective techniques mentioned above. For example, the Rorschach test, popularly known as the ink-blot test can provide insight into the person’s personality and emotional functioning.

Psychological tests may also involve observing someone’s interactions and behavior. Based on the result of the test, an inference will be drawn about the individual’s inherent abilities and potential.

What do psychological tests measure?

Psychological testing covers a number of different areas:

Mental health assessment

A mental health assessment includes information about a person’s medical history, their family history, and the current status of their mental health. The assessment helps identify if there are any mental health issues present, and determine a diagnosis and treatment accordingly.

A psychologist or psychiatrist is likely to start an appointment with a mental health assessment, which will enable them to correctly diagnose and treat you.

Adaptive behavior assessments

This measures the social and practical skills of a person, to determine their ability to function on a daily basis at home, school or work and are usually conducted along with cognitive tests.

For example, it may be used to assess a child’s ability to function in social activities with other students in school.

Aptitude testing

An aptitude test measures a person’s ability to perform different kinds of tasks. This is done to determine the areas in which their skills are the strongest. Some people may be better with quantitative tasks that require math and logical reasoning skills, some at language, and some at creative thinking.

These tests are used by vocational therapists to measure ability, and figure out the kind of professions or job roles a person may be suited for. They may also be used by career counselors to guide people towards higher education in fields where they demonstrate high ability.

Cognitive testing

A cognitive test measures a person’s cognitive abilities— problem solving, reasoning, vocabulary, comprehension, and memory. They are more commonly known as intelligence or IQ tests, and are used in the field of education to identify a person’s strengths and potential.

For instance, a child may be given a cognitive test to measure their ability in different subjects allowing educators to help the child work on the subjects they’re having trouble with.

Educational/achievement testing

Educational testing is conducted to test how much an individual has progressed in learning a specific subject—like mathematics, reading comprehension—to identify any difficulties they may have had in it.

Achievement tests are the examinations that students take in schools and colleges.

Forensic psychological testing

Forensic testing is used in the legal field, to determine whether a suspect is capable of committing the crime they have been accused of. It comprises cognitive, personality, and neuropsychological tests.

Neuropsychological testing

Neuropsychological tests analyze how an individual’s brain works, in order to identify any problems in its functioning.

For instance, a person with a head injury may have to undergo neuropsychological tests to check their brain’s ability to retain information.

Personality assessment

A personality test focuses on the personality traits of an individual. It helps evaluate if a person is more introverted or extroverted, cautious or spontaneous, and how they may react or respond to various life situations.

Interpretation of psychological tests

Psychological tests are not meant to be interpreted without the context of the person being tested—their environment, socioeconomic status or physical health. While the tests do use scientifically verified scales, using its results as a stand-alone criteria can lead to .

For example, in the case of a blood work report—it is necessary for a doctor to read the numbers in relation to your symptoms and general physical health to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

Similarly, it’s important to note that even though many of the psychological tests mentioned above are easily available on the internet, taking them without consulting a mental health professional may not lead to getting an actual analysis of your personality, aptitude or behavior. This in turn, could mean not getting the help you need.

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What projective tests are available for a child and family assessment? - Psychology

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Assessments, Evaluations, Tests

"I want to passionately THANK anyone who was involved with putting this site together. There is a gold mine of information here! The site is well organized and a Godsend to our family. Additionally, I never thought I could understand testing statistics - until I read your pages. Again, a million THANK YOU's!" - Audra Siu

Parents and teachers need accurate information about the child's disability, strengths, weaknesses, and needs this information is available from the tests and evaluations of your child.


Wrightslaw: All About Tests and Assessments, Second Edition

by Melissa Lee Farrall, Ph.D., SAIF, Pamela Darr Wright, MA MSW, and Peter W. D. Wright, Esq.


Parents, get a comprehensive evaluation of your child by an independent evaluator in the private sector. This comprehensive evaluation will give you a roadmap in planning for the future. The evaluation should identify your child's problems and include a plan to address these problems.

Choose an evaluator who has expertise in the child's disability, is independent of the school district, and who is willing to work with the school staff. (For more information about evaluations, read Chapter 8, Evaluations and Your Child's Disability in Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy)

You must also learn about tests and measurements so you can track your child's progress or lack of progress. If you don't learn about tests and measurements, you cannot be an equal participant in planning your child's special education. (For more information about tests and measurements, read Chapters 10 and 11 in Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy)

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* Testing suppresses teaching and learning.
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Parents and teachers must learn why tests are essential to measuring progress and learning. Learn the 9 Myths about Testing - and the Realities!

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OSERS Policy Letter to Baus. Can a parent request an IEE in an area that was not previously assessed by a school district evaluation? Yes, the parent has the right to request an IEE to assess the child in that area to determine whether the child has a disability and the nature and extent of special education services the child will need.

OSERS Policy Letters on Independent Educational Evaluations (IEEs)

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Independent Evaluations: Should Parents Provide a Copy for the School? If the school administration wants to fight and does not have the report in advance, then fight time will simply be delayed, to the detriment of the child.

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Assessing Reading Difficulties and Disabilities. Click on the pop-up box to learn about reading difficulties and disabilities, like dyslexia, and find out how reading is assessed. Get IDEA requirements for evaluations, see answers to your questions, find federal law or regulations that support these answers, and a list of additional resources.

Like the law, tests change. New versions or editions of tests are published often. Use these resources to learn about various tests.

The Test Locator has Information on more than 10,000 tests and research instruments. After you review the material at ERIC/AE, visit the test publisher's site for more info about a specific test. (The Test Locator is a joint project of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, the Library and Reference Services Division of the Educational Testing Service, the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements at the U. of Nebraska, and Pro-Ed test publishers.)

The Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Reference Database provides a computerized data file of literature relevant to psychological assessment, measurement and psychometrics that is updated regularly. All social and behavioral science journals are reviewed on a weekly basis with information provided on commonly used tests including the WISC-III, Woodcock-Johnson, Phonological Awareness tests, etc.

Buros Institute of Mental Measurement provides test reviews and publishes the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print.

Riverside Publishing. Company that publishes the Woodcock-Johnson Tests.

The Psychological Corporation. Publishes the Wechsler Intelligence Scales.

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Assessments and Accommodations by Stephen D. Luke, Ed.D. & Amanda Schwartz, Ph.D. A ccommodations play an important role in educational settings for students with disabilities. But what accommodations are Appropriate for which students? How do accommodations affect students&rsquo learning and their performance on tests? This Evidence for Education addresses these and other questions and explores the research base in this area.

The Accommodations Manual presents a five-step process for individualized educational program teams, 504 plan committees, general and special education teachers, administrators, and district-level assessment staff to use in the selection, administration, and evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of instructional and assessment accommodations by students with disabilities. The guidance in the manual pertains to students with disabilities who participate in large-scale assessments and the instruction they receive.

Improving Accommodations Outcomes: Monitoring Instructional and Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Third in a series of three CCSSO publications for states addressing accommodations and students with disabilities. This publication provides a comprehensive professional development guide for states to establish or improve quality accommodations monitoring programs.


How Projective Tests Work

In many projective tests, people are shown an ambiguous image and then asked to give the first response that comes to mind. The key to projective tests is the ambiguity of the stimuli.

According to the theory behind such tests, using clearly defined questions can result in answers that are carefully crafted by the conscious mind. When you are asked a straightforward question about a particular topic, you have to spend time consciously creating an answer.

This can introduce biases and even untruths, whether or not you're trying to deceive the test provider. For example, a respondent might give answers that are perceived as more socially acceptable or desirable but are perhaps not the most accurate reflection of their true feelings or behavior.

By providing you with a question or stimulus that is not clear, your underlying and unconscious motivations or attitudes are revealed.

The hope is that because of the ambiguous nature of the questions, people might be less able to rely on possible hints about what they think the tester expects to see. As a result, they are hopefully less tempted to "fake good," or make themselves look good, as a result.


Results

As with all projective measures, scoring on figure drawing tests is more subjective. Specific scoring systems, such as the DAP:SPED can be used to provide more objective information. Most figure drawing tests have some sort of objective scoring system however, the instructions given to the child, the questions asked by the test administrator, and the administrator's interpretations of the drawings are flexible and this makes it difficult to compare results between children, even on the same measure. Also, many clinicians choose not to rely on the scoring systems and rely entirely on their own intuitive judgments regarding their interpretation of picture content.

Figure drawings are often interpreted with regard to appropriate cognitive development. Naglieri's DAP:SPED scoring system includes a consideration of what features in a drawing are appropriate for children of various ages. For example, five-year old children are expected to make fairly basic drawings of people, consisting of a head, eyes, nose, mouth, body, arms, and legs. An 11-year-old, on the other hand is expected to have more details in the picture, such as a more defined neck, clothes, and arms in a particular direction.

Sometimes, figure drawings are assessed with regard to self-image. Children often project themselves in the drawings. For example, females with body image concerns may reflect these concerns in their drawings. Victims of sexual abuse may stress sexual characteristics in their drawings.

Psychological, neuropsychological, or emotional dysfunction can also be considered in figure drawing interpretation. This type of interpretation is often done with figure drawings made by adults. For example, a person who omits or distorts body parts may suffer from emotional impairment. Excessive detail with regard to the sexual nature of the drawing may indicate sexual maladjustment.

Family dynamics are also interpreted through figure drawings. For example, in the Kinetic Family Drawing test, a picture where family members are in separate rooms may indicate isolation or a lack of interaction between family members.

Figure drawings are also interpreted with regard to child abuse. In 1994, Von Hutton developed a scoring system for both the HTP and DAP focusing on indicators of child abuse that may be present in drawings. The drawing of the family in the KFD test may also provide indicators of abuse.

There has been much debate over the overall reliability and validity of figure drawing tests (and projective tests in general). For example, when structured scoring systems are used, the DAP has been found to be a reliable measure, especially for cognitive development in children. However, with regard to specific personality characteristics, self-image issues, or personality dysfunctions, there has been relatively little support for the use of figure drawings.


How Projective Tests Work

In many projective tests, people are shown an ambiguous image and then asked to give the first response that comes to mind. The key to projective tests is the ambiguity of the stimuli.

According to the theory behind such tests, using clearly defined questions can result in answers that are carefully crafted by the conscious mind. When you are asked a straightforward question about a particular topic, you have to spend time consciously creating an answer.

This can introduce biases and even untruths, whether or not you're trying to deceive the test provider. For example, a respondent might give answers that are perceived as more socially acceptable or desirable but are perhaps not the most accurate reflection of their true feelings or behavior.

By providing you with a question or stimulus that is not clear, your underlying and unconscious motivations or attitudes are revealed.

The hope is that because of the ambiguous nature of the questions, people might be less able to rely on possible hints about what they think the tester expects to see. As a result, they are hopefully less tempted to "fake good," or make themselves look good, as a result.


Results

As with all projective measures, scoring on figure drawing tests is more subjective. Specific scoring systems, such as the DAP:SPED can be used to provide more objective information. Most figure drawing tests have some sort of objective scoring system however, the instructions given to the child, the questions asked by the test administrator, and the administrator's interpretations of the drawings are flexible and this makes it difficult to compare results between children, even on the same measure. Also, many clinicians choose not to rely on the scoring systems and rely entirely on their own intuitive judgments regarding their interpretation of picture content.

Figure drawings are often interpreted with regard to appropriate cognitive development. Naglieri's DAP:SPED scoring system includes a consideration of what features in a drawing are appropriate for children of various ages. For example, five-year old children are expected to make fairly basic drawings of people, consisting of a head, eyes, nose, mouth, body, arms, and legs. An 11-year-old, on the other hand is expected to have more details in the picture, such as a more defined neck, clothes, and arms in a particular direction.

Sometimes, figure drawings are assessed with regard to self-image. Children often project themselves in the drawings. For example, females with body image concerns may reflect these concerns in their drawings. Victims of sexual abuse may stress sexual characteristics in their drawings.

Psychological, neuropsychological, or emotional dysfunction can also be considered in figure drawing interpretation. This type of interpretation is often done with figure drawings made by adults. For example, a person who omits or distorts body parts may suffer from emotional impairment. Excessive detail with regard to the sexual nature of the drawing may indicate sexual maladjustment.

Family dynamics are also interpreted through figure drawings. For example, in the Kinetic Family Drawing test, a picture where family members are in separate rooms may indicate isolation or a lack of interaction between family members.

Figure drawings are also interpreted with regard to child abuse. In 1994, Von Hutton developed a scoring system for both the HTP and DAP focusing on indicators of child abuse that may be present in drawings. The drawing of the family in the KFD test may also provide indicators of abuse.

There has been much debate over the overall reliability and validity of figure drawing tests (and projective tests in general). For example, when structured scoring systems are used, the DAP has been found to be a reliable measure, especially for cognitive development in children. However, with regard to specific personality characteristics, self-image issues, or personality dysfunctions, there has been relatively little support for the use of figure drawings.


The Kinetic Family Drawing Test in Beyond Art Therapy

I first learned about the Kinetic Family Drawing Technique from a school psychologist who uses this valuable art therapy tool in educational testing.

Later, I applied the Kinetic Family Drawing to the doll house in play therapy and then to Shelter House Therapy and with the Beyond Art Therapy Technique (See Link Below).

The Kinetic Family Drawing Test was developed by Burns & Kaufman. You can use a modified version of this test with your clients and students. It is a very helpful technique for a certified, or licensed, professional to keep in their counseling tool box.

The good news is that you do not have to be an art therapist to use this. You do need to be a professional mental health provider, preferably licensed, with some basic art therapy training. You can get some Beyond Art Therapy training in the eBook in the right hand column of this page.

Basically, the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing Technique will help you reveal answers of the following:

- The therapist will see how the client sees themselves in the family unit.

-  Interaction between the child and family members can be measured.

- The “nuclear self” in the client.

- If the client is an adult, the therapist can see the sense of self from childhood.

- The therapist can see the hidden rules in the family that are not easily seen from the outside looking in.

- Internalized feelings from the child and other family members.

- Who is the most important person in the family, to the least important in the family?

- Who is close in the family and who is not close in the family?

There are five basic elements to the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing that need to be analyzed and interpreted. Below you will find the five basic elements:

1. Placement within The Kinetic Family Drawing:

The Kinetic Family Drawing Placement Grid basically analysis where family members are placed in the drawing. Who is standing next to whom? Are they closely drawn, or far away? Who was drawn first, middle, last, and who was omitted in the drawing? Who was added, yet erased, or moved in the drawing? Who is the largest in the drawing and who is the smallest? Is this true to the scale in real life of each person represented?

2. Physical Characteristics

Look at the physical characteristics of each person in the Kinetic Family Drawing. Are body parts exaggerated or omitted? Look at the clothes? Facial features? Colors used?

Basically in this part of the Kinetic Family Drawing the therapist will analyze what each family member is doing and with whom. Who is left out here? Who is included in the action? Who is the leader and who is the follower?

Look for these in the Kinetic Family drawing. They can also be a projection for something going on that is hidden.

5. The Style of the Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing (The Family System as a whole.)

This is where you can see the internalized feelings of the child, which are learned and adopted from the parent.  If the child has a positive self-image then they learned it from the internalized feelings of the parent. If negative feelings are present, then you can see it was also learned from the parent.

Look for the obvious, what jumps out at you. Extended arms can mean possible rejection. Also, spikey fingers and dark lines could suggest anger. What is missing from the drawing? Sometimes what is not added to the drawing says more than what is in the drawing.

You will find that the family unit has a major impact on the child’s emotional growth, socialization, and interpersonal relationship skills in the style of the drawing. Basically, this is the child’s, or adults, sense of self learned in childhood.

One aspect that is missing from the five basic elements above is the multicultural aspect of the drawing. For instance, in my region of Appalachia families teach their children to hunt with guns.

If a child drew the entire family out hunting with guns I would find this to be a regional dynamic and concept of the families’ life. As a vegetarian and animal lover this is hard for me to accept.

But, I have to move past my cultural perspective and realize that this is how some of my families feed themselves.

However, if you live in New York City this might be a red flag if you see a drawing of a family with guns. Always know the client, or student’s, background and take the culture in which they live in perspective.

Remember, art therapy is a “sample” and a “rough indicator” of the phenomenological world of the client, or student. Several drawings of different art therapy activities should be used.

I encourage therapist to think of art therapy as a tool and a piece of the puzzle from the client’s mind. It is similar to sand tray therapy.  

A therapist would not base a diagnosis, or assumption, on only one client’s sand tray. They would rely on several sand trays, other therapy tools, and several sessions with the client to see the entire perspective of the client.

Materials for the Kinetic Drawing Test Art Therapy Technique:

 - Eight or more different colored crayons, pencils, or markers      - Erasers

Directions for the Kinetic Drawing Test Technique:

1.  Go over the rules of the drawing: Do the best you can, erase as much as you want, don’t draw stick people or cartoons, take as long as you need to for the drawing, and this is not a test of drawing ability.

2. Turn the paper in the landscape (horizontal orientation). Ask the client to, “Draw everyone who is in your family, including yourself, doing something.” Emphasize that everyone in the drawing need to be doing something. I usually get asked if pets can be drawn. I tell the client this it’s okay if they want to draw a pet as long as they are doing something as well.

3. Once the drawing is complete ask the client if you can keep it until the next session. Interpret the test with the five basic elements of the Kinetic Drawing Test above.

*Important Disclaimer regarding Kinetic Family Art Therapy Drawing Test:

Exercise caution when using this test! This test should only be conducted by licensed, or certified mental health professionals.

Use this as a piece of the puzzle when trying to help your students, or clients. Remember that in some forensic situations it is considered unethical or illegal to use the Kinetic Drawing Test.

In the school setting it is advisable to obtain consent from parents when utilizing this test. I would also advise consent for all projective tests to be added to the initial paperwork in private practice.

Always allow your client, or student, to translate what is going on in the drawing. Ask questions about each person and what they are doing.

Drawing Translation Above:

The above drawing is one that a 50 year old woman did when her brother who is now an adult was committed to a mental institution.

It shows how her parents still want to protect him and blame others for his behavior. She feels left out and is walking away as the parents try to stop his childish behavior by overprotecting him.

Note that the "brother" is still drawn as a young child even though he is now an adult. He is wearing orange (hyperactivity, prison color, out of control coloring).

Everyone else is wearing blue due to the sadness of the situation. The mother wears a pink shirt for hope. The "daughter" walking away wears green because she knows he is very ill and her family is not accepting his diagnosis.   

Disclaimer: This website and its content is intended for trained licensed mental health professionals and school certified mental health professionals to use for their clients / students at their own discretion.

*If you ignore the disclaimer above are using these techniques on yourself and you feel any discomfort or upset it is highly suggested that you seek out a licensed  mental health professional immediately.

"Beyond Art Therapy" is the concept from Dr. Stangline that combines all creative fields in therapy. It is not the traditional "art therapy" but goes beyond to include sand tray therapy, play therapy, mindfulness, meditation, color therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and a vast majority of other therapies.

For any other type of mental health emergency call your local 911 / Police Number immediately.

Dr. Stangline does not offer advice / suggestions to anyone who is not a professional mental health provider, or a student who is studying this field and has questions about mental health programs of study.


Theory About Projective Tests:

The projective tests are done under the assumption that humans have conscious and unconscious motivation and attitudes.

1. It maintains conscious and unconscious constraints:

The test affirms that an individual has various needs which can be both conscious and unconscious. These needs can be understood using the projective tests.

It is very common to think that these projective tests can be more on the sides of personality. And that is why it mainly handles all the factors of a natural human behavior on conscious and unconscious elements.

2. It results in spontaneous outcomes:

The need of the person comes out spontaneously and there is no editing in these needs. It is the actual picture of the thought process of a person. And that is why these projective tests represent the most spontaneous outcomes of human behavior.

Moreover, it clearly pictures all the needs and wants of the person in the middle of some sort of emotional roller coaster rides.

3. It depends upon non-verbal communication:

The test does not depend on the verbal details of the person who is getting tested. The results are confirmed on the basis of what the person tells spontaneously while conducting the tests.

In simpler words, one can definitely understand actual personal behavior. Therefore, it is one of the most non-verbal communications wherein which people present their nonverbal communication and that might depend upon behavior, reaction and attitude.

4. Motivational barriers:

This study understands all the results of personality reactions. And most importantly, all the motivations, beliefs and attitudes are detectable quickly. And that is why bringing motivational barriers can increase the stake of this projective test hypothesis high.


What are psychological tests and what are they used for?

When you consult an ophthalmologist for an issue with your vision, they will conduct a series of tests on you—they will make you do an exam or check your eyes for signs of an infection. The results of these tests will help them arrive at a diagnosis and put you on the correct treatment plan: spectacles or just eye drops.

Similarly, psychologists and psychiatrists conduct tests to understand an individual’s functioning and behavior to arrive at a diagnosis of a mental health issue and the corresponding treatment.

What is a psychological assessment?

Psychological assessment is a series of tests conducted by a psychologist, to gather information about how people think, feel, behave and react. The findings are used to develop a report of the person’s abilities and behavior—known as a psychological report—which is then used as a basis to make recommendations for the individual’s treatment.

Psychological assessments and reports are used in other fields as well—like in the case of career planning for young adults or in the job application process to determine how well an applicant will fit into the open role.

The procedures used to create an assessment are:

Consultation with other mental health professionals

Formal psychological tests

Psychological assessment is also used in other fields, like:

Education—to assess a student’s ability to learn, and progress in the classroom

Legal system—to assess the mental health status of a person

What is a psychological test?

A psychological test is used to measure an individual’s different abilities, such as their aptitude in a particular field, cognitive functions like memory and spatial recognition, or even traits like introvertedness. These tests are based on scientifically tested psychological theories.

The format of a test can vary from pencil and paper tasks to computer-based ones. They include activities such as puzzle-solving, drawing, logic problem solving, and memory games.

Some tests also use techniques—known as projective techniques—which aim to access the unconscious. In these instances, the subject’s responses are analyzed through psychological interpretation and more complex algorithms than the non-projective techniques mentioned above. For example, the Rorschach test, popularly known as the ink-blot test can provide insight into the person’s personality and emotional functioning.

Psychological tests may also involve observing someone’s interactions and behavior. Based on the result of the test, an inference will be drawn about the individual’s inherent abilities and potential.

What do psychological tests measure?

Psychological testing covers a number of different areas:

Mental health assessment

A mental health assessment includes information about a person’s medical history, their family history, and the current status of their mental health. The assessment helps identify if there are any mental health issues present, and determine a diagnosis and treatment accordingly.

A psychologist or psychiatrist is likely to start an appointment with a mental health assessment, which will enable them to correctly diagnose and treat you.

Adaptive behavior assessments

This measures the social and practical skills of a person, to determine their ability to function on a daily basis at home, school or work and are usually conducted along with cognitive tests.

For example, it may be used to assess a child’s ability to function in social activities with other students in school.

Aptitude testing

An aptitude test measures a person’s ability to perform different kinds of tasks. This is done to determine the areas in which their skills are the strongest. Some people may be better with quantitative tasks that require math and logical reasoning skills, some at language, and some at creative thinking.

These tests are used by vocational therapists to measure ability, and figure out the kind of professions or job roles a person may be suited for. They may also be used by career counselors to guide people towards higher education in fields where they demonstrate high ability.

Cognitive testing

A cognitive test measures a person’s cognitive abilities— problem solving, reasoning, vocabulary, comprehension, and memory. They are more commonly known as intelligence or IQ tests, and are used in the field of education to identify a person’s strengths and potential.

For instance, a child may be given a cognitive test to measure their ability in different subjects allowing educators to help the child work on the subjects they’re having trouble with.

Educational/achievement testing

Educational testing is conducted to test how much an individual has progressed in learning a specific subject—like mathematics, reading comprehension—to identify any difficulties they may have had in it.

Achievement tests are the examinations that students take in schools and colleges.

Forensic psychological testing

Forensic testing is used in the legal field, to determine whether a suspect is capable of committing the crime they have been accused of. It comprises cognitive, personality, and neuropsychological tests.

Neuropsychological testing

Neuropsychological tests analyze how an individual’s brain works, in order to identify any problems in its functioning.

For instance, a person with a head injury may have to undergo neuropsychological tests to check their brain’s ability to retain information.

Personality assessment

A personality test focuses on the personality traits of an individual. It helps evaluate if a person is more introverted or extroverted, cautious or spontaneous, and how they may react or respond to various life situations.

Interpretation of psychological tests

Psychological tests are not meant to be interpreted without the context of the person being tested—their environment, socioeconomic status or physical health. While the tests do use scientifically verified scales, using its results as a stand-alone criteria can lead to .

For example, in the case of a blood work report—it is necessary for a doctor to read the numbers in relation to your symptoms and general physical health to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.

Similarly, it’s important to note that even though many of the psychological tests mentioned above are easily available on the internet, taking them without consulting a mental health professional may not lead to getting an actual analysis of your personality, aptitude or behavior. This in turn, could mean not getting the help you need.

We are a not-for-profit organization that relies on donations to deliver knowledge solutions in mental health. We urge you to donate to White Swan Foundation. Your donation, however small, will enable us to further enhance the richness of our portal and serve many more people. Please click here to support us.


What projective tests are available for a child and family assessment? - Psychology

Home > Topics > Evaluations, Assessments & Tests

Assessments, Evaluations, Tests

"I want to passionately THANK anyone who was involved with putting this site together. There is a gold mine of information here! The site is well organized and a Godsend to our family. Additionally, I never thought I could understand testing statistics - until I read your pages. Again, a million THANK YOU's!" - Audra Siu

Parents and teachers need accurate information about the child's disability, strengths, weaknesses, and needs this information is available from the tests and evaluations of your child.


Wrightslaw: All About Tests and Assessments, Second Edition

by Melissa Lee Farrall, Ph.D., SAIF, Pamela Darr Wright, MA MSW, and Peter W. D. Wright, Esq.


Parents, get a comprehensive evaluation of your child by an independent evaluator in the private sector. This comprehensive evaluation will give you a roadmap in planning for the future. The evaluation should identify your child's problems and include a plan to address these problems.

Choose an evaluator who has expertise in the child's disability, is independent of the school district, and who is willing to work with the school staff. (For more information about evaluations, read Chapter 8, Evaluations and Your Child's Disability in Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy)

You must also learn about tests and measurements so you can track your child's progress or lack of progress. If you don't learn about tests and measurements, you cannot be an equal participant in planning your child's special education. (For more information about tests and measurements, read Chapters 10 and 11 in Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy)

In What is Your Bell Curve IQ?, we give you a quiz and a game plan to help you master this information - and have some fun. Download our Glossary of Assessment Terms .

Assessment 101 is a series of three articles about developmental assessments by Dr. Aida Khan, clinical psychologist and neuropsychologist and Lecturer in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Get an overview of developmental assessments, read about the most common types of assessments, find out how to choose an evaluator.

US Department of Justice Technical Assistance on Testing Accommodations for individuals with disabilities who take standardized exams and high-stakes tests. Students with a history of academic success may still be a person with a disability who is entitled to testing accommodations under the ADA.

My Child is Being Evaluated - What Tests Should I Request?, Advocate Pat Howey offers advice about evaluations, test selection, state laws governing evaluations of children with special educational needs, and the special responsibilities and duties of advocates.

My Child's IQ Scores are Falling. Doesn't this mean he isn't learning? The school says he's doing "just fine."

What is the Matthew Effect? Answers frequently asked questions about falling IQ scores reasons why IQ scores drop more information.

What Can a Parent Do When the School Balks? One parent's journey from emotions to advocacy as she lobbies for the services her son needs.

Are Children with Disabilities Required to Take High Stakes Tests? Answers to questions about using high stakes tests for children with disabilities.

IDEA, Section 504 & Kids with Disabilities. Learn about rights and responsibilities under IDEA and Section 504, parental permission, the role of your child's IEP team, accommodations and modifications, alternate assessments, out-of-level testing, accountability, and more.

"What is the Law About Evaluations?" a psychologist asks . In this article, Pete Wright explains where to find answers to your questions about evaluations. Another article will tell you more about evaluations.

Can a School be Forced to Evaluate Child? Pam Wright answers questions about what should happen when a parent and advocate want a child tested, but the school does not want to evaluate the child for special education services.

When Evaluation Shows a Disability, School Says Child is "Lazy". When parents learn that their child is not stubborn, lazy, or unmotivated, but has a disability, many are consumed by guilt. If you&rsquove experienced these feelings, it&rsquos time for a reality check. "We didn&rsquot want to raise a lazy child.&rdquo The Untold Story of Shannon Carter v. Florence County.

What Reading Tests Measure . . . and Don't Measure by Dr. Melissa Farrall. Before educators can design an effective remedial program for a child, they must understand the exact nature of the child's weaknesses. This is not as easy as it sounds. Learn about the most commonly used tests of reading - what they measure, how they are administered, and their limitations.

Testing: Myths & Realities. How many of these statements about testing are true?

* Testing suppresses teaching and learning.
* Testing promotes "teaching to the test."
* Testing does not measure what a student knows.
* Testing discriminates against different styles of test-takers.
* Testing hurts the poor and people of color.
* Testing increases dropout rates and create physical and emotional illness in children.

Parents and teachers must learn why tests are essential to measuring progress and learning. Learn the 9 Myths about Testing - and the Realities!

Tests and Measurements for the Parent, Educator, Advocate & Attorney.
Your child has received special education for three years. Has the child caught up with the peer group? Has the child fallen further behind? How do you know? What do standard scores, percentile ranks, subtest scores, and age and grade equivalents mean?
To successfully negotiate for special ed services that provide educational benefit, you need to know how to interpret test scores. (To ensure that you have the graphics in this article, print the article from the screen.) #1 download since 1998!

Independent Educational Evaluations (IEEs): What? How? Why? Who Pays? Parent attorney Wayne Steedman describes IEEs, the value of IEEs for parents and school personnel, what the law requires, and who is financially responsible.

Independent Educational Evaluations (IEEs) : Must Parents Chose an Evaluator from School's Approved List? In 2004, the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) published a Policy Letter about IEEs and parent choice clarified that parents have a right to choose their independent evaluator.

OSERS Policy Letter to Baus. Can a parent request an IEE in an area that was not previously assessed by a school district evaluation? Yes, the parent has the right to request an IEE to assess the child in that area to determine whether the child has a disability and the nature and extent of special education services the child will need.

OSERS Policy Letters on Independent Educational Evaluations (IEEs)

Tests Commonly Administered to Evaluate Reading Problems.

Tests, Testing Issues and Advocacy. Dr. Bill Matthew, Director of Special Education, Delano, CA, offers suggestions about tests and and testing issues, including age & grade equivalents, subtest scatter, improper use of projective tests, and tests that are psychometrically sound.

What Is Your Bell Curve IQ? Take our Bell Curve IQ Quiz to test your knowledge about the bell curve, standard scores, percentile ranks, and standard deviations - and get a Wrightslaw Game Plan to improve your score.

Evaluation a Child Who Is Blind and Language Impaired. Many tests used with blind children are outdated or lead to inaccurate findings. Because testing requires the use of so many accommodations and modifications, results should be &ldquointerpreted with caution."

School Evaluations: Should Schools Provide a Parents with a Copy Before the IEP? &ldquoParents may inspect and review any personally identifiable data relating to their children that were collected, maintained, or used in his/her evaluation."

Independent Evaluations: Should Parents Provide a Copy for the School? If the school administration wants to fight and does not have the report in advance, then fight time will simply be delayed, to the detriment of the child.

What to Expect from an Evaluation. In this excellent article, psychologist and literacy researcher Marianne Meyer walks you through the process of gathering information and participating in the evaluation process.

What You Should Know About Evaluations. As a parent, you must make sure that all areas of possible need are assessed as quickly as possible. While some parents would rather not allow their school system to evaluate their child, a refusal to cooperate at this stage of the process can backfire . . . " Read article

How Can We Get an Independent Evaluation by an Evaluator of Our Choice? IDEA includes procedural safeguards to protect the rights of children and their parents that include the right to to an independent educational evaluation. This article includes a sample letter that parents can use to request an IEE by an evaluator who is not on the school's "approved list," or when parents are advised that they must use an evaluator on the school's "approved list."

OSEP Report on Assessments. Discusses reasons why parents should allow their kids to be tested:

  • to improve educational results for children with disabilities
  • to create high education expectations for all children
  • to make schools accountable for educating ALL students.

Assessing Reading Difficulties and Disabilities. Click on the pop-up box to learn about reading difficulties and disabilities, like dyslexia, and find out how reading is assessed. Get IDEA requirements for evaluations, see answers to your questions, find federal law or regulations that support these answers, and a list of additional resources.

Like the law, tests change. New versions or editions of tests are published often. Use these resources to learn about various tests.

The Test Locator has Information on more than 10,000 tests and research instruments. After you review the material at ERIC/AE, visit the test publisher's site for more info about a specific test. (The Test Locator is a joint project of the ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation, the Library and Reference Services Division of the Educational Testing Service, the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements at the U. of Nebraska, and Pro-Ed test publishers.)

The Institute for Applied Psychometrics (IAP) Reference Database provides a computerized data file of literature relevant to psychological assessment, measurement and psychometrics that is updated regularly. All social and behavioral science journals are reviewed on a weekly basis with information provided on commonly used tests including the WISC-III, Woodcock-Johnson, Phonological Awareness tests, etc.

Buros Institute of Mental Measurement provides test reviews and publishes the Mental Measurements Yearbook and Tests in Print.

Riverside Publishing. Company that publishes the Woodcock-Johnson Tests.

The Psychological Corporation. Publishes the Wechsler Intelligence Scales.

High-Stakes Tests News (see also High-Stakes Tests)

High-Stakes Lawsuit in Massachusetts: How High Are the Stakes? Learn about the new high-stakes lawsuit in Massachusetts - and how high these stakes are.

Lawsuit Against High Stakes Test Filed in California. Disability Rights Advocates files lawsuit against California Dept of Education claims that exit exam discriminates because it does not provide for an alternate assessment, provides no procedure for requesting accommodations, nor a process for appeals.

Judge Asked for Injunction So Seniors Can Graduate. Battles about high-stakes tests are flaring up around the country: issues include high expectations v. accountability, due process rights, obligations to teach basic skills.

Free Pubs - High-Stakes Tests

Describes accommodations, alternate assessments, appeals, procedures, and other safeguards that should be implemented for statewide assessment systems to comply with the law and guarantee educationally sound opportunities to students with learning disabilities.

This report Includes data collected from all states with exit exams information from case studies in five states review of major research recommendations to ensure that exit exams are implemented well and lead to greater learning.

Describes standards for tests that are used to make decisions with important consequences for students: tests used for diagnostic and intervention purposes, assessment of academic educational achievement, and alternate assessments for students with disabilities who cannot participate in district-wide academic achievement tests.

Assessments and Accommodations by Stephen D. Luke, Ed.D. & Amanda Schwartz, Ph.D. A ccommodations play an important role in educational settings for students with disabilities. But what accommodations are Appropriate for which students? How do accommodations affect students&rsquo learning and their performance on tests? This Evidence for Education addresses these and other questions and explores the research base in this area.

The Accommodations Manual presents a five-step process for individualized educational program teams, 504 plan committees, general and special education teachers, administrators, and district-level assessment staff to use in the selection, administration, and evaluation of the effectiveness of the use of instructional and assessment accommodations by students with disabilities. The guidance in the manual pertains to students with disabilities who participate in large-scale assessments and the instruction they receive.

Improving Accommodations Outcomes: Monitoring Instructional and Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities. Third in a series of three CCSSO publications for states addressing accommodations and students with disabilities. This publication provides a comprehensive professional development guide for states to establish or improve quality accommodations monitoring programs.


How do therapists use the family drawing test?

Therapists and psychologists use the family drawing test in the following way:

  • First, they offer the child a piece of paper and colored pencils.
  • The environment should be comfortable. The child should feel safe and secure.
  • Next, they tell the child or adolescent to draw their family.
  • They tell the child that the drawing will not be graded. The idea is for them to be relaxed while drawing. If they enjoy the experience, even better.
  • Later, once figures begin to take shape, the therapist can start to ask questions.
  • One way to get more information during the test is to ask the following questions:Who is this? What do they do? Do you get along with him/her? Who is the happiest? Who is the most unhappy?

It is also important that the psychologist note the order in which the child creates different elements of their drawing. Additionally, they should also indicate if the child erases anything, crosses something out, hesitates, etc.


History of Projective Testing

Typically used with children, the subject is asked to draw a picture of a man, a woman, and themselves. No further instructions are given and the pictures are analyzed on a number of dimensions. Aspects such as the size of the head, placement of the arms, and even things such as if teeth were drawn or not are thought to reveal a range of personality traits (Murstein, 1965). The personality traits can be anything from aggressiveness, to homosexual tendencies, to relationships with their parents, to introversion and extroversion (Machover, 1949). There are many versions of the test, but the one discussed in detail here is the version by Karen Machover in 1949.

The official beginning of when figure drawing was first thought to be associated with personality is unknown. Whether it was the drawing on a cave wall, a painting by a great artist, or a doodle made by an average person, the curiosity somehow came about. However, the formal beginning of it’s use for psychological assessment is known to begin with Florence Goodenough, a child psychologist, in 1926 (Scott, 1981).

Goodenough first became interested in figure drawing when she wanted to find a way to supplement the Stanford-Binet intelligence test with a nonverbal measure. The test was developed to assess maturity in young people. She concluded that the amount of detail involved in a child’s drawing could be used as an effective tool. This led to the development of the first official assessment using figure drawing with her development of the Draw-A-Man test. Over the years, the test has been revised many times with added measures for assessing intelligence (Weiner & Greene, 2008). Harris later revised the test including drawings of a woman and of themselves. Now considered the Goodenough-Harris Test it has guidelines for assessing children from ages 6 to 17 (Scott, 1981).

Soon after the development of the test, psychologists started considering the test for measures of differences in personality as well as intelligence. In 1949, Karen Machover developed the first measure of figure drawing as a personality assessment with the Draw A Person Test (Machover, 1949).

Machover did a lot of work with disturbed adolescents and adults and used the test to assess people of all ages. She wrote a book on her measure expressing that the features of the figures drawn reflect underlying attitudes, concerns, and personality traits. In her test, she included a suggestion to ask about the person they have drawn. She advises to ask them to tell the administrator a story about the figure as if they were in a novel or play. Machover used a qualitative approach in her interpretation considering individual drawing characteristics (Machover, 1949). Others have since suggested a more quantitative approach that can be more widely used analyzing selected characteristics that are in an index of deeper meanings (Murstein, 1965).

The most popular quantitative approach was developed by Elizabeth Koppitz. Koppitz developed a measure of assessment that has a list of emotional indicators including size of figures, omission of body parts, and some “special features”. The total number of the indicators is simply added up to provide a number that represents the likeliness of disturbance (Murstein, 1965).

With the Draw a Person test as a base, a number of other tests have developed using figure drawing as a personality assessment tool. For example, the House-Tree-Person test similarly just asks the person to draw those three objects and then inquires about what they have drawn. The questions asked for inquiry include what kinds of activities go on in the house, what are the strongest parts of the tree, and what things make the person angry or sad. The KFD (Kinetic Family Drawing) tells the drawer to draw their family doing something (Murstein, 1965).

All of these tests have the important element of not only the assessment of the pictures themselves, but also the thematic variables involved. Every figure drawing test asks the drawer to include some kind of description or interpretation of what is happening in the picture. These elements are also analyzed accordingly (Weiner & Greene, 2008).

Advantages:
-Easy to administer (only about 20-30 minutes plus 10 minutes of inquiry)
-Helps people who have anxieties taking tests (no strict format)
-Can assess people with communication problems
-Relatively culture free
-Allow for self administration

Disadvantages:
-Restricted amount of hypotheses can be developed
-Relatively non-verbal, but may have some problems during inquiry
-Little research backing

The Ipad/Ipod Touch has a free app that uses this type of test. Dr.Touch is an app closely resembling the House-Tree-Person Test which is similar to the draw a person test. You draw whatever it asks on the screen and then it gives you a personality assesment according to your drawing. Here’s an example of someone using it:

Machover, K. (1949). Personality projection: in the drawing of a human figure. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas Publisher.

Murstein, B. (1965). Handbook of projective techniques. New York, NY: Basic Books Inc.

Scott, L. (1981). Measuring intelligence with the goodenough-harris drawing test. Psychological bulletin, 89(3), 483-505.

Weiner, I, & Greene, R. (2008). Handbook of personality assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.


Watch the video: Child and Family Assessment (August 2022).