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Correct term for realistic user behaviour and decision making

Correct term for realistic user behaviour and decision making



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Describing the limitations of my study surrounding the modeling of domestic hot water storage tanks, I want to find a precise term to describe realistic user behavior, which was disregarded in my simulation.

Such behavior would include, e.g.,

  • interrupting/postponing the draw-off during bathing once the temperature falls below a certain limit
  • increasing the temperature setting preceding unusually high hot water consumption

Could I refer to this behavior as "game-theoretical effects", or is there another, more fitting, scientific term?


Science in general refers to ecological validity as the degree to which materials and settings in a study approximate the real world that is being examined.

Therefore, such limitations could be referred to as limitations to ecological validity. Often, such limitations are inherent to running an experimental study, as opposed to studying the real world. Whether or not this is a risk to the overall validity of your study depends on what conclusions you intend to draw from the results.


Correct term for realistic user behaviour and decision making - Psychology

Decision making refers to making choices among alternative courses of action—which may also include inaction. While it can be argued that management is decision making, half of the decisions made by managers within organizations ultimately fail. Therefore, increasing effectiveness in decision making is an important part of maximizing your effectiveness at work. This chapter will help you understand how to make decisions alone or in a group while avoiding common decision-making pitfalls.

Individuals throughout organizations use the information they gather to make a wide range of decisions. These decisions may affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization. For example, the decisions made by executives and consulting firms for Enron ultimately resulted in a $60 billion loss for investors, thousands of employees without jobs, and the loss of all employee retirement funds. But Sherron Watkins, a former Enron employee and now-famous whistleblower, uncovered the accounting problems and tried to enact change. Similarly, the decision made by firms to trade in mortgage-backed securities is having negative consequences for the entire economy in the United States. All parties involved in such outcomes made a decision, and everyone is now living with the consequences of those decisions.


Abnormal frontal activations related to decision-making in current and former amphetamine and opiate dependent individuals

There is converging evidence for impairments in decision-making in chronic substance users. In the light of findings that substance abuse is associated with disruptions of the functioning of the striato–thalamo–orbitofrontal circuits, it has been suggested that decision-making impairments are linked to frontal lobe dysfunction. We sought to investigate this possibility using functional neuroimaging.

Methods

Decision-making was investigated using the Cambridge Risk Task during H2 15 O PET scans. A specific feature of the Risk Task is the decisional conflict between an unlikely high reward option and a likely low reward option. Four groups, each consisting of 15 participants, were compared: chronic amphetamine users, chronic opiate users, ex-drug users who had been long-term amphetamine/opiate users but are abstinent from all drugs of abuse for at least 1 year and healthy matched controls without a drug-taking history.

Results

During decision-making, control participants showed relatively greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas participants engaged in current or previous drug use showed relatively greater activation in the left orbitofrontal cortex.

Conclusion

Our results indicate a disturbance in the mediation by the prefrontal cortex of a risky decision-making task associated with amphetamine and opiate abuse. Moreover, this disturbance was observed in a group of former drug users who had been abstinent for at least 1 year.


Purchase

During the purchase decision stage, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand or product.

Learning Objectives

Examine the “purchase decision” stage of the Consumer Decision Process

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • During this time, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand because he has evaluated all the alternatives and identified the value that it will bring him.
  • The final purchase decision, can be disrupted by two factors: 1. Negative feedback of others and our level of motivation to comply or accept the feedback. 2. The decision may be disrupted due to a situation that one did not anticipate, such as losing a job or a retail store closing down.
  • During this stage, the consumer must decide the following: 1. from whom he should buy, 2. when to buy, and 3. whether to buy.

Key Terms

  • Purchase Decision: The fourth stage in the consumer decision process and when the purchase actually takes place.

The purchase decision is the fourth stage in the consumer decision process and when the purchase actually takes place. During this time, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand because he has evaluated all the alternatives and identified the value that it will bring him.

Making a Purchase: Making a purchase decision is the final stage in the decision process.

According to Philip Kotler, Keller, Koshy and Jha (2009), the final purchase decision, can be disrupted by two factors:

  1. Negative feedback of others and our level of motivation to comply or accept the feedback. For example, after going through the need recognition, information search, and alternative evaluation stages, one might choose to buy a Nikon D80 DSLR camera, but a close photographer friend might share negative feedback, which could drastically influence personal preference.
  2. The decision may be disrupted due to a situation that one did not anticipate, such as losing a job or a retail store closing down.

During this stage, the consumer must decide the following:

  • From whom they should buy, which is influenced by price point, terms of sale, and previous experience with or awareness of the seller and the return policy.
  • When to buy, which can be influenced by the store atmosphere or environment, time pressures and constraints, the presence of a sale, and the shopping experience.
  • This is also a time during the which the consumer might decide against making the purchase decision. Alternatively, they may also decide that they want to make the purchase at some point in the near or far future perhaps because the price point is above their means or simply because they might feel more comfortable waiting.

Schizophrenia and delusional disorders

Other risky decision making tasks

Several researchers utilized other behavioral decision making tasks to assess potential impairments in decision making among those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or another spectrum disorder. Performance on the Wheel of Fortune task is not associated with hallucination proneness (Jones, de-Wit, Fernyhough, & Meins, 2008). On the Cambridge/Rogers Gamble Task, participants with schizophrenia have difficulty using potential losses in their decisions (Heerey, Robinson, McMahon, & Gold, 2007), whereas no differences are seen among individuals with schizotypal features (Li, Shi, et al., 2016) compared to controls. Healthy controls prefer risky to safe options on the risky gains task, but such a preference is not seen among those with schizophrenia (Cheng, Tang, et al., 2012). On rewarding tasks, in which participants determine the level of effort to expend on easy and hard trials with differing rewards, participants with schizophrenia are less willing to expend effort for higher incentives ( Fervaha et al., 2013 ), instead preferring to expend greater effort for higher reward and higher likelihood trials ( Fervaha et al., 2015 ). Again, results across different risky decision making tasks vary in whether or not those with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder are riskier than healthy controls.


3. Cultural factors

A group of people are associated with a set of values and ideologies that belong to a particular community. When a person comes from a particular community, his/her behavior is highly influenced by the culture relating to that particular community. Some of the cultural factors are:

I. Culture

Cultural Factors have strong influence on consumer buyer behavior. Cultural Factors include the basic values, needs, wants, preferences, perceptions, and behaviors that are observed and learned by a consumer from their near family members and other important people around them.

Ii. Subculture

Within a cultural group, there exists many subcultures. These subcultural groups share the same set of beliefs and values. Subcultures can consist of people from different religion, caste, geographies and nationalities. These subcultures by itself form a customer segment.

Iii. Social Class

Each and every society across the globe has form of social class. The social class is not just determined by the income, but also other factors such as the occupation, family background, education and residence location. Social class is important to predict the consumer behavior.


8. Future directions

There is clear evidence that working to respectfully encourage patient engagement improves health outcomes and wellbeing for patients. As discussed in this article, engagement is critical across the lifespan and across the disease spectrum, from prevention to chronic disease control. Recent decades have seen great advances in patient engagement for clinical decision-making, promoting healthy behaviors, and self-management of chronic conditions. Understanding and addressing health literacy is a central underpinning to all of these activities.

Despite clear advances in our understanding of the value of patient engagement and effective strategies to engage patients in health, much more is needed. There are clear evidence gaps that deserve further work. Further research is needed to understand how to better inform and engage patients in decisions and self-management. Needs range from improving timely access to information for patients, ensuring that information is clear and understandable, ensuring that patients understand the importance of the information, and designing information to be actionable. As information becomes increasingly accessible from a host of venues, helping patients to navigate the morass of information and better integrating diverse sources of information could reduce patient confusion about what they need. A massive challenge will be to learn how to better redesign the healthcare delivery system to make evidence-based patient engagement part of routine care. This is especially challenging given how many decisions and health behaviors benefit from patient engagement. The health care system will also need to learn how to receive and interpret a growing expanse of patient reported information from wearables and other devices. This information may not only be able to help clinicians with decisions, but also be a mechanism in of itself to engage patients. Clinicians will also need to build and study partnerships with community resources that can extend engagement outside the clinical setting and better support patients in their daily lives. Given the diversity of patients and their needs, a host of solutions will be needed to engage patients and understanding how to match these solutions with individual patients will be critical. This challenge may be particularly important for more disadvantaged individuals and those with lower health literacy.

The future of patient engagement will need to continue to advance these activities, but also move beyond, to authentically engage patients not only in their health care, but in designing and implementing care delivery systems, developing local and national health policies, and directing health research [95]. Patient insights and lived experiences can ensure that healthcare systems and programs align with their priorities, address their needs, and are delivered in an accessible manner. Patients can help set healthcare systems’ organizational priorities, participate in governance decisions, and define organizational strategies and activities. Similarly, patients can ensure that legislative, regulatory, and funding priorities reflect their needs. Patient engagement for research can help to frame research questions, select outcomes, develop study protocols, support recruitment, interpret results, translate research findings into lay language, disseminate results, and even sustain interventions.

Efforts will be needed to help patients realistically participate in these activities. Patient engagement will need to become the cultural norm. Patients will need training and support to meaningfully participate. Yet collectively, these higher levels of patient engagement can improve our very systems for promoting health.


The consumer, The KING of the market is the one that dominates the market and the market trends. Lets us know the King first. A consumer is someone who pays a sum to consume the goods and services sold by an organization. The consumer plays a very important role in the demand and supply chain of every economic system of every nation. The producers of the goods and services would lack the motive of producing as there would be no demand for their products.

Digital marketing, conversion rate optimization, customer relationship management & others

Who is a consumer?

A consumer need not just be an individual a consumer can also be an organization. A consumer can be someone who will buy either goods or services or you can also specify the goods and services as economic services or products, or good or commodities. A consumer is the end user or a target to whom the goods and services are sold. In simple words a consumer can be described as:

  1. A person or an organization that is specifically targeted to sell a products or a service of a company.
  1. Someone again, mind you this someone can either be an individual or an organization that pays a price to use the goods and services of an organization.
  1. A person or an organization who is the final user of the goods and the services produced by a company.

You can consider all three definitions to define a consumer.

The consumer is the decision maker here in the economic system. He can take the following decisions

  1. The decision of buying or not a product in a store or at a shop
  2. The consumer will decide if he would want to be influenced by the marketing strategies and the advertisements of the organization for a product or a service.
  3. Many consumers are influenced by marketing and advertisements
  4. The consumer decides what they want to buy and when they want to buy it
  5. The consumer chooses between competitors and their products.

Decision making is the power given to the consumer.

Everyone has been a consumer and participated in the consumer market. The consumer market is where the consumer has the right and the power to make a decision of spending their money. Even buying a packet of chips from a store is being a part of the consumer market as you participate in the buying a packet of chips buy paying a sum for the purchase. Here you are also taking a decision. This is a decision of buying goods and spending your money. You are deciding where to spend your money and on what should you spend your money. You are deciding amongst competitors. The more active the consumers of the nation the more active will be the nation’s consumer market.

What is consumer behaviour?

Now that you know who is a consumer you also must know what is consumer behaviour and how does it affect the organizations.

Consumer behaviour is a physiological process it is all related to the emotions of the consumer. In this process the consumer starts with recognizing the need of the product, and then finds a way or a medium of solving these needs, makes purchase decisions like planning whether he should buy or not buy a certain product, and then he confirms the information, jots down a plan and then implements the plan of making the purchase.

Consumer behaviour is physiological it is human behaviour it can change with the slightest change in the market, the atmosphere and the trend. Studying consumer behaviour is a challenge take look at a few challenges that is how can you study consumer behaviour

How to study consumer behaviour?

  1. You need to first understand the physiology of the consumer of a specific class, standard and of a specific market. You need to understand how does the customer think, reason, feel, and select between the option of products and services offered
  2. Then understanding the environment of the customer is important. The environment includes the family of the consumer, their social atmosphere, their culture, etc.
  3. The consumer psychology is different when they shop and make decisions of spending their money.
  4. The knowledge of the consumer about the products, the industry and your competitors. How can you influence the customer with minimum knowledge by educating him about your products and services?
  5. How can you motivate the consumer buying behaviour, helping him make a decision in selecting between products, the importance of their product and how will their decision affect them?
  6. How should the company improve their marketing strategy and marketing campaigns based on their focused consumer behaviour?
  7. How does a single consumer decision effects a group of consumers that is a group of people, this can include their friends, their family, etc.
  8. The consumer’s behaviour also depends on buying a new products and reusing the old ones. The organizations also need to understand how reusing products influences a consumer.
  9. The consumers also take decisions based on the after sales services and the service provided by the organization and their distributors. Service offered to a consumer also matters in influencing their behavior
  10. How a single or a group of consumer behavior does affects the society and the atmosphere and the economy of the nation.

What are the types of consumer behaviour?

Following are the different types:

Programmed or routine behaviour

Buying of regular and daily goods that involve very less money and also minimum research work fits under this type of goods buying behaviour. For example buying goods from the grocery store that are goods used on daily basis like milk, eggs, bread, etc

Buying products occasionally or limited decision making

When a consumer tries to gain information about unfamiliar brands of familiar products of not very high value goods this is when a consumer makes a decision however occasionally. The time required to gather such information is quite moderate for example buying of goods like clothes and cosmetics.

Complex and involvement or extensive decision making

Buying of products such as computers, laptops, property, cars, education, etc which requires a huge amount of research and economic involvement comes under this category or type. This decision take time as it needs too much of research work as the consumer will study almost all the options available in his economic range, the research is prolonged as the customer would want to buy the best option available for the price he is paying.

The last type is the impulse buying or the conscious planning type

The job of the organizations here is to educate the consumers about their goods and services and motivate them to buy their goods and services. Predicting single or consumer behaviour of a group is not just difficult because you never know what factors might influence them and when. Reason being the consumers today have a huge variety of choice and a number of factors influence the behaviour of the consumers. Let’s take a look at the notes given below to understand what influences consumer behaviour.

Important factors that influence consumer behaviour

You for sure might be wondering as to what is it that influences these consumers, how do we analyzes when is their purchase pattern going to change. Of course only the influencing factors will confirm what will change the consumers buying pattern.

We have four main factors that affect consumer behaviour they are

1. Consumer Behaviour – Cultural factors

Culture plays a very vital role in the determining consumer behaviour it is sub divided in

Culture is a very complex belief of human behaviour it includes the human society, the roles that the society plays, the behaviour of the society, its values customs and traditions. Culture needs to be examined as it is a very important factor that influences consumer behaviour.

Sub-culture is the group of people who share the same values, customs and traditions. You can define them as the nation, the religion, racial groups and also groups of people sharing the same geographic location

Society possesses social class in fact every society possesses one. It is important to know what social class is being targeted as normally the buying behaviour of a social class is quite similar. Remember not just the income but even other factors describe social class of a group of consumers.

2. Consumer Behaviour – Social Factors

Social factors are also subdivided into the following

Under social factors reference groups have a great potential of influencing consumer behaviour. Of course its impact varies across products and brands. This group often includes an opinion leader.

The behaviour of a consumer is not only influenced by their motivations and personalities but also their families and family members who can two or more people living together either because of blood relationship or marriage.

People who belong to different organizations, groups or club members, families play roles and have a status to maintain. These roles and status that they have to maintain also influences consumer behaviour as they decide to spend accordingly.

3. Consumer Behaviour – Personal factors

A number of personal factors also influence the consumer behaviour. In fact this is one major factor that influences consumer behaviour. The sub factors under personal factor are listed below.

Age of a consumer and his life cycle are two most important sub factors under personal factors. With the age and the life cycle the consumers purchase options and the motive of purchase changes, with his decisions of buying products change. Hence this stage does affect consumer behaviour.

Occupation of a consumer is affects the goods and services a consumer buys. The occupations group has above average interest in buying different products and services offered by organizations. In fact organizations produce separate products for different occupational groups.

Everything can be bought and sold with the help of money. If the economic situation of a consumer is not good or stable it will affect his purchase power, in fact if the consumers or the economy of a nation is suffering a loss it defiantly affects the consumers purchase or spending decisions.

People originating from different cultures, sub cultures, occupations and even social class have different styles of living. Life style can confirm the interest, opinions and activities of people. Different life styles affect the purchase pattern of consumers.

Every individual is different and have different and distinct personalities. Their distinct personalities and distinct physiology effects their buying decisions. Hence purchase of products and services defers from person to person.

4. Consumer Behaviour – Psychological factors

4 psychological factors affect consumer behaviour very strongly. Let’s look at them in detail.

Motivation is activating the internal needs and requirements of the consumer. It can also be described as goals and needs of the consumers. Motivation arouses and directs the consumers towards certain goals. These needs can be psychological needs, needs of security, social needs, esteem needs and also self actualizing needs.

Perception is sensing the world and the situations around and then taking a decision accordingly. Every individual look as the world and the situations differently. The judging ability and capacity of every individual is different and hence the look at the world differently. This is what separates the decision taking abilities.

Learning is the research of products and services before the consumer takes the decision of buying a product. Learning and self educating these days is done online and also in groups. Experience is taking a lesson from the past experiences of a product and service. Learning and experience both again play an important role in influencing the consumer’s behaviour as it influences their purchase decision.

Attitude is a consumer’s favorable and unfavorable emotional condition or emotional feeling, also its tendency of reaction to certain actions and behaviours. Beliefs of people that are the belief that people assume the products to be as make the specifications of the products. Hence attitude and beliefs are also important and need to be taken into consideration while studying human behaviour.

Related Articles

Here are some articles that will help you to get more detail about the Influence Consumer Behaviour so just go through the link.


Though there are many slight variations of the decision-making framework floating around on the Internet, in business textbooks, and in leadership presentations, professionals most commonly use these seven steps.

1. Identify the decision

To make a decision, you must first identify the problem you need to solve or the question you need to answer. Clearly define your decision. If you misidentify the problem to solve, or if the problem you’ve chosen is too broad, you’ll knock the decision train off the track before it even leaves the station.

If you need to achieve a specific goal from your decision, make it measurable and timely so you know for certain that you met the goal at the end of the process.

2. Gather relevant information

Once you have identified your decision, it’s time to gather the information relevant to that choice. Do an internal assessment, seeing where your organization has succeeded and failed in areas related to your decision. Also, seek information from external sources, including studies, market research, and, in some cases, evaluation from paid consultants.

Beware: you can easily become bogged down by too much information—facts and statistics that seem applicable to your situation might only complicate the process.

3. Identify the alternatives

With relevant information now at your fingertips, identify possible solutions to your problem. There is usually more than one option to consider when trying to meet a goal—for example, if your company is trying to gain more engagement on social media, your alternatives could include paid social advertisements, a change in your organic social media strategy, or a combination of the two.

4. Weigh the evidence

Once you have identified multiple alternatives, weigh the evidence for or against said alternatives. See what companies have done in the past to succeed in these areas, and take a good hard look at your own organization’s wins and losses. Identify potential pitfalls for each of your alternatives, and weigh those against the possible rewards.

5. Choose among alternatives

Here is the part of the decision-making process where you, you know, make the decision. Hopefully, you’ve identified and clarified what decision needs to be made, gathered all relevant information, and developed and considered the potential paths to take. You are perfectly prepared to choose.

6. Take action

Once you’ve made your decision, act on it! Develop a plan to make your decision tangible and achievable. Develop a project plan related to your decision, and then set the team loose on their tasks once the plan is in place.

7. Review your decision

After a predetermined amount of time—which you defined in step one of the decision-making process—take an honest look back at your decision. Did you solve the problem? Did you answer the question? Did you meet your goals?

If so, take note of what worked for future reference. If not, learn from your mistakes as you begin the decision-making process again.


Examples of Organizational Behavior

Findings from organizational behavior research are used by executives and human relations professionals to better understand a business’s culture, how that culture helps or hinders productivity and employee retention, and how to evaluate candidates' skills and personality during the hiring process.

Organizational behavior theories inform the real-world evaluation and management of groups of people. There are a number of components:

  • Personality plays a large role in the way a person interacts with groups and produces work. Understanding a candidate's personality, either through tests or through conversation, helps determine whether they are a good fit for an organization.
  • Leadership—what it looks like and where it comes from—is a rich topic of debate and study within the field of organizational behavior. Leadership can be broad, focused, centralized or de-centralized, decision-oriented, intrinsic in a person’s personality, or simply a result of a position of authority.
  • Power, authority, and politics all operate inter-dependently in a workplace. Understanding the appropriate ways these elements are exhibited and used, as agreed upon by workplace rules and ethical guidelines, are key components to running a cohesive business.

Correct term for realistic user behaviour and decision making - Psychology

Decision making refers to making choices among alternative courses of action—which may also include inaction. While it can be argued that management is decision making, half of the decisions made by managers within organizations ultimately fail. Therefore, increasing effectiveness in decision making is an important part of maximizing your effectiveness at work. This chapter will help you understand how to make decisions alone or in a group while avoiding common decision-making pitfalls.

Individuals throughout organizations use the information they gather to make a wide range of decisions. These decisions may affect the lives of others and change the course of an organization. For example, the decisions made by executives and consulting firms for Enron ultimately resulted in a $60 billion loss for investors, thousands of employees without jobs, and the loss of all employee retirement funds. But Sherron Watkins, a former Enron employee and now-famous whistleblower, uncovered the accounting problems and tried to enact change. Similarly, the decision made by firms to trade in mortgage-backed securities is having negative consequences for the entire economy in the United States. All parties involved in such outcomes made a decision, and everyone is now living with the consequences of those decisions.


8. Future directions

There is clear evidence that working to respectfully encourage patient engagement improves health outcomes and wellbeing for patients. As discussed in this article, engagement is critical across the lifespan and across the disease spectrum, from prevention to chronic disease control. Recent decades have seen great advances in patient engagement for clinical decision-making, promoting healthy behaviors, and self-management of chronic conditions. Understanding and addressing health literacy is a central underpinning to all of these activities.

Despite clear advances in our understanding of the value of patient engagement and effective strategies to engage patients in health, much more is needed. There are clear evidence gaps that deserve further work. Further research is needed to understand how to better inform and engage patients in decisions and self-management. Needs range from improving timely access to information for patients, ensuring that information is clear and understandable, ensuring that patients understand the importance of the information, and designing information to be actionable. As information becomes increasingly accessible from a host of venues, helping patients to navigate the morass of information and better integrating diverse sources of information could reduce patient confusion about what they need. A massive challenge will be to learn how to better redesign the healthcare delivery system to make evidence-based patient engagement part of routine care. This is especially challenging given how many decisions and health behaviors benefit from patient engagement. The health care system will also need to learn how to receive and interpret a growing expanse of patient reported information from wearables and other devices. This information may not only be able to help clinicians with decisions, but also be a mechanism in of itself to engage patients. Clinicians will also need to build and study partnerships with community resources that can extend engagement outside the clinical setting and better support patients in their daily lives. Given the diversity of patients and their needs, a host of solutions will be needed to engage patients and understanding how to match these solutions with individual patients will be critical. This challenge may be particularly important for more disadvantaged individuals and those with lower health literacy.

The future of patient engagement will need to continue to advance these activities, but also move beyond, to authentically engage patients not only in their health care, but in designing and implementing care delivery systems, developing local and national health policies, and directing health research [95]. Patient insights and lived experiences can ensure that healthcare systems and programs align with their priorities, address their needs, and are delivered in an accessible manner. Patients can help set healthcare systems’ organizational priorities, participate in governance decisions, and define organizational strategies and activities. Similarly, patients can ensure that legislative, regulatory, and funding priorities reflect their needs. Patient engagement for research can help to frame research questions, select outcomes, develop study protocols, support recruitment, interpret results, translate research findings into lay language, disseminate results, and even sustain interventions.

Efforts will be needed to help patients realistically participate in these activities. Patient engagement will need to become the cultural norm. Patients will need training and support to meaningfully participate. Yet collectively, these higher levels of patient engagement can improve our very systems for promoting health.


Abnormal frontal activations related to decision-making in current and former amphetamine and opiate dependent individuals

There is converging evidence for impairments in decision-making in chronic substance users. In the light of findings that substance abuse is associated with disruptions of the functioning of the striato–thalamo–orbitofrontal circuits, it has been suggested that decision-making impairments are linked to frontal lobe dysfunction. We sought to investigate this possibility using functional neuroimaging.

Methods

Decision-making was investigated using the Cambridge Risk Task during H2 15 O PET scans. A specific feature of the Risk Task is the decisional conflict between an unlikely high reward option and a likely low reward option. Four groups, each consisting of 15 participants, were compared: chronic amphetamine users, chronic opiate users, ex-drug users who had been long-term amphetamine/opiate users but are abstinent from all drugs of abuse for at least 1 year and healthy matched controls without a drug-taking history.

Results

During decision-making, control participants showed relatively greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas participants engaged in current or previous drug use showed relatively greater activation in the left orbitofrontal cortex.

Conclusion

Our results indicate a disturbance in the mediation by the prefrontal cortex of a risky decision-making task associated with amphetamine and opiate abuse. Moreover, this disturbance was observed in a group of former drug users who had been abstinent for at least 1 year.


Examples of Organizational Behavior

Findings from organizational behavior research are used by executives and human relations professionals to better understand a business’s culture, how that culture helps or hinders productivity and employee retention, and how to evaluate candidates' skills and personality during the hiring process.

Organizational behavior theories inform the real-world evaluation and management of groups of people. There are a number of components:

  • Personality plays a large role in the way a person interacts with groups and produces work. Understanding a candidate's personality, either through tests or through conversation, helps determine whether they are a good fit for an organization.
  • Leadership—what it looks like and where it comes from—is a rich topic of debate and study within the field of organizational behavior. Leadership can be broad, focused, centralized or de-centralized, decision-oriented, intrinsic in a person’s personality, or simply a result of a position of authority.
  • Power, authority, and politics all operate inter-dependently in a workplace. Understanding the appropriate ways these elements are exhibited and used, as agreed upon by workplace rules and ethical guidelines, are key components to running a cohesive business.

Though there are many slight variations of the decision-making framework floating around on the Internet, in business textbooks, and in leadership presentations, professionals most commonly use these seven steps.

1. Identify the decision

To make a decision, you must first identify the problem you need to solve or the question you need to answer. Clearly define your decision. If you misidentify the problem to solve, or if the problem you’ve chosen is too broad, you’ll knock the decision train off the track before it even leaves the station.

If you need to achieve a specific goal from your decision, make it measurable and timely so you know for certain that you met the goal at the end of the process.

2. Gather relevant information

Once you have identified your decision, it’s time to gather the information relevant to that choice. Do an internal assessment, seeing where your organization has succeeded and failed in areas related to your decision. Also, seek information from external sources, including studies, market research, and, in some cases, evaluation from paid consultants.

Beware: you can easily become bogged down by too much information—facts and statistics that seem applicable to your situation might only complicate the process.

3. Identify the alternatives

With relevant information now at your fingertips, identify possible solutions to your problem. There is usually more than one option to consider when trying to meet a goal—for example, if your company is trying to gain more engagement on social media, your alternatives could include paid social advertisements, a change in your organic social media strategy, or a combination of the two.

4. Weigh the evidence

Once you have identified multiple alternatives, weigh the evidence for or against said alternatives. See what companies have done in the past to succeed in these areas, and take a good hard look at your own organization’s wins and losses. Identify potential pitfalls for each of your alternatives, and weigh those against the possible rewards.

5. Choose among alternatives

Here is the part of the decision-making process where you, you know, make the decision. Hopefully, you’ve identified and clarified what decision needs to be made, gathered all relevant information, and developed and considered the potential paths to take. You are perfectly prepared to choose.

6. Take action

Once you’ve made your decision, act on it! Develop a plan to make your decision tangible and achievable. Develop a project plan related to your decision, and then set the team loose on their tasks once the plan is in place.

7. Review your decision

After a predetermined amount of time—which you defined in step one of the decision-making process—take an honest look back at your decision. Did you solve the problem? Did you answer the question? Did you meet your goals?

If so, take note of what worked for future reference. If not, learn from your mistakes as you begin the decision-making process again.


The consumer, The KING of the market is the one that dominates the market and the market trends. Lets us know the King first. A consumer is someone who pays a sum to consume the goods and services sold by an organization. The consumer plays a very important role in the demand and supply chain of every economic system of every nation. The producers of the goods and services would lack the motive of producing as there would be no demand for their products.

Digital marketing, conversion rate optimization, customer relationship management & others

Who is a consumer?

A consumer need not just be an individual a consumer can also be an organization. A consumer can be someone who will buy either goods or services or you can also specify the goods and services as economic services or products, or good or commodities. A consumer is the end user or a target to whom the goods and services are sold. In simple words a consumer can be described as:

  1. A person or an organization that is specifically targeted to sell a products or a service of a company.
  1. Someone again, mind you this someone can either be an individual or an organization that pays a price to use the goods and services of an organization.
  1. A person or an organization who is the final user of the goods and the services produced by a company.

You can consider all three definitions to define a consumer.

The consumer is the decision maker here in the economic system. He can take the following decisions

  1. The decision of buying or not a product in a store or at a shop
  2. The consumer will decide if he would want to be influenced by the marketing strategies and the advertisements of the organization for a product or a service.
  3. Many consumers are influenced by marketing and advertisements
  4. The consumer decides what they want to buy and when they want to buy it
  5. The consumer chooses between competitors and their products.

Decision making is the power given to the consumer.

Everyone has been a consumer and participated in the consumer market. The consumer market is where the consumer has the right and the power to make a decision of spending their money. Even buying a packet of chips from a store is being a part of the consumer market as you participate in the buying a packet of chips buy paying a sum for the purchase. Here you are also taking a decision. This is a decision of buying goods and spending your money. You are deciding where to spend your money and on what should you spend your money. You are deciding amongst competitors. The more active the consumers of the nation the more active will be the nation’s consumer market.

What is consumer behaviour?

Now that you know who is a consumer you also must know what is consumer behaviour and how does it affect the organizations.

Consumer behaviour is a physiological process it is all related to the emotions of the consumer. In this process the consumer starts with recognizing the need of the product, and then finds a way or a medium of solving these needs, makes purchase decisions like planning whether he should buy or not buy a certain product, and then he confirms the information, jots down a plan and then implements the plan of making the purchase.

Consumer behaviour is physiological it is human behaviour it can change with the slightest change in the market, the atmosphere and the trend. Studying consumer behaviour is a challenge take look at a few challenges that is how can you study consumer behaviour

How to study consumer behaviour?

  1. You need to first understand the physiology of the consumer of a specific class, standard and of a specific market. You need to understand how does the customer think, reason, feel, and select between the option of products and services offered
  2. Then understanding the environment of the customer is important. The environment includes the family of the consumer, their social atmosphere, their culture, etc.
  3. The consumer psychology is different when they shop and make decisions of spending their money.
  4. The knowledge of the consumer about the products, the industry and your competitors. How can you influence the customer with minimum knowledge by educating him about your products and services?
  5. How can you motivate the consumer buying behaviour, helping him make a decision in selecting between products, the importance of their product and how will their decision affect them?
  6. How should the company improve their marketing strategy and marketing campaigns based on their focused consumer behaviour?
  7. How does a single consumer decision effects a group of consumers that is a group of people, this can include their friends, their family, etc.
  8. The consumer’s behaviour also depends on buying a new products and reusing the old ones. The organizations also need to understand how reusing products influences a consumer.
  9. The consumers also take decisions based on the after sales services and the service provided by the organization and their distributors. Service offered to a consumer also matters in influencing their behavior
  10. How a single or a group of consumer behavior does affects the society and the atmosphere and the economy of the nation.

What are the types of consumer behaviour?

Following are the different types:

Programmed or routine behaviour

Buying of regular and daily goods that involve very less money and also minimum research work fits under this type of goods buying behaviour. For example buying goods from the grocery store that are goods used on daily basis like milk, eggs, bread, etc

Buying products occasionally or limited decision making

When a consumer tries to gain information about unfamiliar brands of familiar products of not very high value goods this is when a consumer makes a decision however occasionally. The time required to gather such information is quite moderate for example buying of goods like clothes and cosmetics.

Complex and involvement or extensive decision making

Buying of products such as computers, laptops, property, cars, education, etc which requires a huge amount of research and economic involvement comes under this category or type. This decision take time as it needs too much of research work as the consumer will study almost all the options available in his economic range, the research is prolonged as the customer would want to buy the best option available for the price he is paying.

The last type is the impulse buying or the conscious planning type

The job of the organizations here is to educate the consumers about their goods and services and motivate them to buy their goods and services. Predicting single or consumer behaviour of a group is not just difficult because you never know what factors might influence them and when. Reason being the consumers today have a huge variety of choice and a number of factors influence the behaviour of the consumers. Let’s take a look at the notes given below to understand what influences consumer behaviour.

Important factors that influence consumer behaviour

You for sure might be wondering as to what is it that influences these consumers, how do we analyzes when is their purchase pattern going to change. Of course only the influencing factors will confirm what will change the consumers buying pattern.

We have four main factors that affect consumer behaviour they are

1. Consumer Behaviour – Cultural factors

Culture plays a very vital role in the determining consumer behaviour it is sub divided in

Culture is a very complex belief of human behaviour it includes the human society, the roles that the society plays, the behaviour of the society, its values customs and traditions. Culture needs to be examined as it is a very important factor that influences consumer behaviour.

Sub-culture is the group of people who share the same values, customs and traditions. You can define them as the nation, the religion, racial groups and also groups of people sharing the same geographic location

Society possesses social class in fact every society possesses one. It is important to know what social class is being targeted as normally the buying behaviour of a social class is quite similar. Remember not just the income but even other factors describe social class of a group of consumers.

2. Consumer Behaviour – Social Factors

Social factors are also subdivided into the following

Under social factors reference groups have a great potential of influencing consumer behaviour. Of course its impact varies across products and brands. This group often includes an opinion leader.

The behaviour of a consumer is not only influenced by their motivations and personalities but also their families and family members who can two or more people living together either because of blood relationship or marriage.

People who belong to different organizations, groups or club members, families play roles and have a status to maintain. These roles and status that they have to maintain also influences consumer behaviour as they decide to spend accordingly.

3. Consumer Behaviour – Personal factors

A number of personal factors also influence the consumer behaviour. In fact this is one major factor that influences consumer behaviour. The sub factors under personal factor are listed below.

Age of a consumer and his life cycle are two most important sub factors under personal factors. With the age and the life cycle the consumers purchase options and the motive of purchase changes, with his decisions of buying products change. Hence this stage does affect consumer behaviour.

Occupation of a consumer is affects the goods and services a consumer buys. The occupations group has above average interest in buying different products and services offered by organizations. In fact organizations produce separate products for different occupational groups.

Everything can be bought and sold with the help of money. If the economic situation of a consumer is not good or stable it will affect his purchase power, in fact if the consumers or the economy of a nation is suffering a loss it defiantly affects the consumers purchase or spending decisions.

People originating from different cultures, sub cultures, occupations and even social class have different styles of living. Life style can confirm the interest, opinions and activities of people. Different life styles affect the purchase pattern of consumers.

Every individual is different and have different and distinct personalities. Their distinct personalities and distinct physiology effects their buying decisions. Hence purchase of products and services defers from person to person.

4. Consumer Behaviour – Psychological factors

4 psychological factors affect consumer behaviour very strongly. Let’s look at them in detail.

Motivation is activating the internal needs and requirements of the consumer. It can also be described as goals and needs of the consumers. Motivation arouses and directs the consumers towards certain goals. These needs can be psychological needs, needs of security, social needs, esteem needs and also self actualizing needs.

Perception is sensing the world and the situations around and then taking a decision accordingly. Every individual look as the world and the situations differently. The judging ability and capacity of every individual is different and hence the look at the world differently. This is what separates the decision taking abilities.

Learning is the research of products and services before the consumer takes the decision of buying a product. Learning and self educating these days is done online and also in groups. Experience is taking a lesson from the past experiences of a product and service. Learning and experience both again play an important role in influencing the consumer’s behaviour as it influences their purchase decision.

Attitude is a consumer’s favorable and unfavorable emotional condition or emotional feeling, also its tendency of reaction to certain actions and behaviours. Beliefs of people that are the belief that people assume the products to be as make the specifications of the products. Hence attitude and beliefs are also important and need to be taken into consideration while studying human behaviour.

Related Articles

Here are some articles that will help you to get more detail about the Influence Consumer Behaviour so just go through the link.


Purchase

During the purchase decision stage, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand or product.

Learning Objectives

Examine the “purchase decision” stage of the Consumer Decision Process

Key Takeaways

Key Points

  • During this time, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand because he has evaluated all the alternatives and identified the value that it will bring him.
  • The final purchase decision, can be disrupted by two factors: 1. Negative feedback of others and our level of motivation to comply or accept the feedback. 2. The decision may be disrupted due to a situation that one did not anticipate, such as losing a job or a retail store closing down.
  • During this stage, the consumer must decide the following: 1. from whom he should buy, 2. when to buy, and 3. whether to buy.

Key Terms

  • Purchase Decision: The fourth stage in the consumer decision process and when the purchase actually takes place.

The purchase decision is the fourth stage in the consumer decision process and when the purchase actually takes place. During this time, the consumer may form an intention to buy the most preferred brand because he has evaluated all the alternatives and identified the value that it will bring him.

Making a Purchase: Making a purchase decision is the final stage in the decision process.

According to Philip Kotler, Keller, Koshy and Jha (2009), the final purchase decision, can be disrupted by two factors:

  1. Negative feedback of others and our level of motivation to comply or accept the feedback. For example, after going through the need recognition, information search, and alternative evaluation stages, one might choose to buy a Nikon D80 DSLR camera, but a close photographer friend might share negative feedback, which could drastically influence personal preference.
  2. The decision may be disrupted due to a situation that one did not anticipate, such as losing a job or a retail store closing down.

During this stage, the consumer must decide the following:

  • From whom they should buy, which is influenced by price point, terms of sale, and previous experience with or awareness of the seller and the return policy.
  • When to buy, which can be influenced by the store atmosphere or environment, time pressures and constraints, the presence of a sale, and the shopping experience.
  • This is also a time during the which the consumer might decide against making the purchase decision. Alternatively, they may also decide that they want to make the purchase at some point in the near or far future perhaps because the price point is above their means or simply because they might feel more comfortable waiting.

3. Cultural factors

A group of people are associated with a set of values and ideologies that belong to a particular community. When a person comes from a particular community, his/her behavior is highly influenced by the culture relating to that particular community. Some of the cultural factors are:

I. Culture

Cultural Factors have strong influence on consumer buyer behavior. Cultural Factors include the basic values, needs, wants, preferences, perceptions, and behaviors that are observed and learned by a consumer from their near family members and other important people around them.

Ii. Subculture

Within a cultural group, there exists many subcultures. These subcultural groups share the same set of beliefs and values. Subcultures can consist of people from different religion, caste, geographies and nationalities. These subcultures by itself form a customer segment.

Iii. Social Class

Each and every society across the globe has form of social class. The social class is not just determined by the income, but also other factors such as the occupation, family background, education and residence location. Social class is important to predict the consumer behavior.


Schizophrenia and delusional disorders

Other risky decision making tasks

Several researchers utilized other behavioral decision making tasks to assess potential impairments in decision making among those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or another spectrum disorder. Performance on the Wheel of Fortune task is not associated with hallucination proneness (Jones, de-Wit, Fernyhough, & Meins, 2008). On the Cambridge/Rogers Gamble Task, participants with schizophrenia have difficulty using potential losses in their decisions (Heerey, Robinson, McMahon, & Gold, 2007), whereas no differences are seen among individuals with schizotypal features (Li, Shi, et al., 2016) compared to controls. Healthy controls prefer risky to safe options on the risky gains task, but such a preference is not seen among those with schizophrenia (Cheng, Tang, et al., 2012). On rewarding tasks, in which participants determine the level of effort to expend on easy and hard trials with differing rewards, participants with schizophrenia are less willing to expend effort for higher incentives ( Fervaha et al., 2013 ), instead preferring to expend greater effort for higher reward and higher likelihood trials ( Fervaha et al., 2015 ). Again, results across different risky decision making tasks vary in whether or not those with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder are riskier than healthy controls.